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Archiwum

  • Wszystkich wizyt: 65793
  • Dzisiaj wizyt: 6

Miesięczne Archiwa: Grudzień 2003

po świętach

Uzbierało się. Jak co roku święta nie są dla mnie czasem pojednania i przebaczenia. Wręcz przeciwnie. Kilka dni przedświątecznych i same święta to moment, kiedy wszystko drażni mnie najbardziej. Nie ma innej takiej pory w roku, kiedy czułbym tak silnie, że nie pasuję. Na dodatek nie widzę miejsca, gdzie mógłbym się przenieść. Tylko jedna rzecz daje złudzenie ucieczki. Pytanie tylko, czy ucieczka nie męczy a złudzenia, gdy zburzone, powodują jeszcze większą frustrację.
Przed świętami drażniło mnie to, że wszędzie, gdzie bym się nie ruszyły widziałem sztuczną atmosferę. Nagle ludzie zaczynali sobie przypominać o swoim człowieczeństwie i nakładali na siebie maski dobrego samopoczucia. Jak można być zadowolonym w mieście, które umarło? Przypominało się też niektórym, że można na wystawie sklepowej powiesić Mikołaja a okno przyozdobić kolorowymi lampkami. Niestety, nikt – wieszając Mikołaja – nie wykorzystał do tego stryczka a kolorowych lampek nie wieszał w kształt trupiej czachy. Zero poczucia dobrego smaku. Drażniło mnie też to, że byli też tacy, którzy – słyszałem ich wypowiedzi w jedynym radiu, którego słucham – cieszyli się szczerze z nadchodzącego Bożego Narodzenia. Mówili, że czują i wierzą w to, że to jest – choć umowna – rocznica narodzin Boga. W przeciwieństwie do tych z ulicy, ci z radia śpiewali kolędy radośnie, z życiem. Czego, niestety, nie można powiedzieć o znacznej większości tych wszystkich wykonawców, którzy darli się w czas świąt w telewizji. Ich zawodzenie (tych z telewizji, nie tych z radia) irytowało mnie jeszcze bardziej. Do tego wszystkiego dochodzi jeszcze rodzina i składanie życzeń. Gdy kilka lat temu postanowiłem sobie składać każdej osobie inne życzenia, nie doceniono tego. Niemalże drwiono ze mnie, że nie mówię: „wszystkiego najlepszego”. Wtedy dotarło do mnie, że nie ma sensu się wychylać. I tak niczego nie zmienię. Mam nadzieję, że jak już wyrwę się z domu, tak kiedyś, na stałe, to więcej ich wszystkich nie zobaczę. W tym roku z nieskrywaną nieszczerością każdej osobie z rodziny (z wyjątkiem Big Brothera i rodziców) mówiłem: „Szczęścia!”, a myślałem: „obyś szczezł(a)!”. Drażniło mnie też to, że nie radzę sobie z tym wszystkim, nie potrafię zlekceważyć i nie dbać o nic. Takie zbawcze zobojętnienie przychodzi dopiero rankiem 27-ego grudnia.
I na koniec, ostatnim powodem do złości jest to, że za rok znów będą te przeklęte święta.

notatka świąteczna

kartka
Wesołych Świąt i Szczęśliwego Nowego Roku!
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!
Hyvää Joulua ja Onnellista Uutta Vuotta!
Felix Dies Nativitatis et Annus Novus sit!

xviii.xii.mmiii

wrocilem

PS
przez najblizszy czas (do dwoch, trzech miesiecy) nie mam Internetu. kontakt jedynie telefoniczny.

ostatnie zdjecia

jyvaskyla
koszulka uniwersytetu

suomi
bluza SUOMI

chlopaki
Felipe, ja, Ambrosio

doris
moja najlepsza przyjaciolka – DORIS

dwa dni

ruchem jednostajnie przyspieszonym zbliza sie dzien, kiedy zostawie za soba najpierw Roninmäeki i chlopakow, potem miasto Jyväskylä. Dalej lotnisko nieopodal Jyväskylä. Wreszcie i Vante. stane po kilku godzinach podrozy na polskiej ziemi wiedzac, ze najprawdopodobniej nigdy wiecej nie bedzie mi dane ponownie znalezc sie w Finlandii. czy bedzie to moment, w ktorym przyjdzie kolej na refleksje? na podsumowania pobytu? nie sadze. juz w tej chwili wiem, co osiagnalem, a czego mi sie nie udalo. do takiej oceny nie potrzeba zadnej symbolicznej chwili. jednak, kierujac sie zasada, ktora zostala opracowana jeszcze w beztroskich czasach podstawowki, a sprawdza sie do dzis, pewne bedzie to, ze niczego zalowac nie bede. wyjazd do Finlandii i pobyt tutaj bedzie we wspomnieniach wydarzeniem zabarwionym wyjatkowo pozytywnie…

Perspectives To Finnish Societylearning diary

iii.x.mmiii

Care Of Children And Older People In Finland

     General idea of that lecture was to present how the care over children and older people looks in Finland. Besides, what role play women in that care. Moreover, how the responsibility for that care is divided between family and social healthcare.
Mainly, this care is organized by the state institutions, municipalities etc., but it is also supported by the informal care systems. Moreover, the importance of gender cannot be neglected.
Everything, that is the formal, organized care of children, has begun in the end of 19th century. It is then when first nursery schools and kindergartens are created. It was mostly transferred to Finland from the German speaking countries. This care, in those times, was available only in selected, bigger cities. The nursery schools and kindergartens were treated as educational institutions. Then, in the beginning of 20th century, the charity organizations also started to fund places of care over children. Mostly in the industrialized centers. The complex, available to all, care of children was finally organized in the 70’s. In the 1973 the law was introduced that every Finnish family has right to use the public children care. As the matter of fact, this act started to work after, more or less, 20 years. In the 1999 another law was introduced, namely that children of 6 years old can go to pre-schools.
The need for such care of children was a result of the women’s position in the work market. In Finland, most of them work in half-time jobs. Which is quite opposite to the other European countries.
The care of children is in Finland quite well organized. Both of children in the nursery age and in the pre-school age. The children, mostly, are under a state care. It is state that provides institutions that take care of children. But, on the other hand, it is also worth for parents to stay at home and take care of their children by their own. For, if one of the parents takes care of the children he or she is paid by the state for that. In addition, it is universal law so everyone, without any exception, can take advantage of it.
As to the care of older people, theoretically there is also this kind of universalism, but practically it is rather not present in everyday life.
In Finland, since long time ago, exists a social care system. In the beginning it was for the poor, homeless, old and disabled people. When the 19th century was ending and the 20th was beginning the local authorities were obligated to build those kind of places for the social care system, unless they’d built them earlier. Somehow around the Second World War, new, non-profitable organizations arose. What’s more, it is the beginning of the specialization towards care only of the older people. First voluntary organizations are started. The care is moved also to the homes. The real break is in the late 60’s and early 70’s. The sources of help for older people are: home help, family, spouse, neighbors, friends.


x.x.mmiii

Finnish Families And Family Policies

     Family is the topic that is under consideration of science since recent times. In addition, family is the notion that is not perfectly clear. For it is seen different by different family members. There is also a question, what is a disappearing of the family, the basic unit, to the society.
In Finland, one can distinguish something like “nuclear family model”. That means, generally, two generations living together. Namely, the coupe with their children. But that’s the ideal. It doesn’t always exist in reality. There is also a problem of relation between cohabitation and marriage. Can cohabitation be thought as it was a family?
Cohabitation if Finland has become common and socially accepted form of living during the last 30 years. Nowadays, 9 of 10 couples start living together as a cohabitating couple. Some of them will get married later. There is a figure that around 46% of first born children are born outside marriages and 90% of them in the cohabitating couples. Moreover, in many ways cohabitation is equal to marriage. The legal possession of children, for instance, is also secured outside the marriages (in case, the father recognizes the child). During last years, the age that people get married has increased and now it is about 28 for women and 30 for men.
In Finland there is also such thing as “small families”. They are characterized by few things. First, the age of women having their first baby has increased which is especially seen among well educated women. The result of it is that around 50% of first time mothers are over 27 years old. The number of childless women, as well, has increased lately in Finland. Statistical, there is 1.8 children per woman and from 1 to 3 children per one family.
There is a tendency for divorces. It is said that cohabiting couples separate even more often than married couples. Short marriages are nowadays more common in Finland than before. Another, quite visible symptom, of the families in Finland is that lone parents or stepfamilies are more and more frequent. There is also this care of children case. In Finland the laws of the children are sometimes even more important than laws of the biological parents.
As a conclusion, it can be said that family not necessarily must be based on marriage. There are another options, as cohabitating couples, for instance.


xxiv.x.mmiii

Multicultural Policy In Finland

     To talk about cultural policy first it is required to think what can culture be itself. One can divide culture in to two aspects. The “aesthetic register” – that is arts and that represents the differences and similarities between people’s viewpoints and the “anthropological register” – sense of life (differences between populations). The cultural policy then is the link between aesthetic and anthropological registers. It refers to the institutional supports that channel both aesthetic creativity and collects ways of life. Is a bridge between registers.
The constants of cultural policy are: arts and instrumental (i.e. usefulness). First, the cultural policy was art, then it became a way of life.
Since 1860 to 1960 it was a creation of a national identity. During those times art was superior in the cultural policy. The terms that are adequate to that period are: art, citizenship, civilization etc. Then, since the 1960 up to 1990, in Finland art and artists policy is visible. In those times one can say about such things as: cultural actions, participation, democracy etc. Since the 1990, in Finland there are new forms of funding, new cultural industries. The industrialization and the internationalization as well of cultural policy takes place. The words that refer to the present situation are: culture, individualization, autonomy, sustainable development.
Finnish cultural policy has its own objectives and principles. First of all, it wants to create something like “an arm’s model”. Then, it wants to be educational. It means that it wants to provide ways to make the society enlighten, more active in the cultural way. It creates, for example, public libraries or provides an adult education. Another principle of the Finnish cultural policy is the state and municipal financial support. This is somehow combined with the public ownership and public budgets. The priorities of cultural policy in Finland are: developing of the laws that consider culture in general; supporting individual, but not only, creativity; promoting understanding of other cultures; spreading knowledge of languages.


xxxi.x.mmiii

Power Relations In Finnish Municipalities

     In Finland, there are 446 municipalities. Generally, they are relatively small. They have – by average – from 3 000 up to 5 000 inhabitants. The smallest has 132 inhabitants, the largest – more than 500 000. There are 6 cities with population over 100 000. Municipalities are self-governing communities. They have rights to decide how to arrange expenses. For that reason, municipalities also have some problems due to many responsibilities. They should provide basic services, welfare, health care, education, culture etc. They also set taxes rate. Nowadays there is less taxes but they are more expensive. Together, they employ around 420 000 employees. Among those employees 29.2% are employed in a health care; 27.0% in social services; 26.9% in education and culture; 4.9% in town planning and public work; 4.4% in municipal enterprises; 3.4% in general administration; 2.1% in real estate and 2.1% in public order and safety.
At the top of each municipality there is a city manager. There is also a council that has under itself municipal executive board. Municipal executive board consist of municipal committees that are responsible for education, culture, social welfare, health care, environmental and technical infrastructure. 10% of municipal decisions are free decisions, 90% are duties to the state. As in any other fields in Finland, the women role in municipalities is quite important for there is about 30% of them in the councils. There is also a law that each committee must have at least one woman.
Regional councils consist of assembly elected by municipal councilors, board elected by assembly and offices. The task for them are: regional policy, regional development authority, regional development programs of the EU, international cooperation, regional physical planning.
Municipal city makes routine decisions, official decisions and political decisions (the responsibility of deciding another way).
The society in Finland is getting older. For that reason social welfare and healthcare is current problem for the municipalities.
Average expenditure: 48% – social welfare and health care; 24% – education an culture; 14% other operating expenditure; 9% – investment expenditure.
Average income: 49% – taxes; 16% state subsidies; 26% – operating resources for current expenditure; 2% – investment income; 5% – loans; 2% – other income.
     There is also a matter of where the society is going? In which direction. But, to this question there are no good or wrong answers. There are only possibilities. One can never be
sure how the things are going. Whether it would be globalization or glocalization.


vii.xi.mmiii

Finnish Economy: from Agriculture to High Technology

     Looking back to the mid-nineteenth century, the rapid industrial growth was based on the dramatic rise of the sawmill industry and then the paper industry. This phase was preceded by exports of wood tar, the use of charcoal in iron works, and the primitive manufacture of sawn goods for both domestic and foreign markets. The forest sector has developed from tar to planks to fine paper. The sector remains one of the most important clusters in the Finnish economy. Most other industrial operations have been spawned as indirect results of it. At first, the industry’s growth was based almost entirely on natural resources: trees, hydro-power and waterway transport. Nearly all the machinery, equipment and technology was imported. Gradually domestically produced machines took over, and in turn became export products.
The forest industry has spawned many sectors of the chemical industry and, later on, electronics and automation industries linked with forest-industry process control. Similarly it has spawned logging machinery and technology, areas in which the Finns are world leaders. The other end of the forest cluster includes services, forest-sector consulting and planning. Knowledge-intensive business services are the fastest growing part of the forest cluster. The growth of services is based increasingly on information and communications technology.
Metals industry and mechanical engineering have followed a similar path. Initially growth was based on raw materials with imported machinery and technology. Then imported machines were replaced by domestic models. These then became export products with new applications added to basic products. High-tech manufacturing and systems know-how was developed and consulting services were expanded. Developments were increasingly based on domestic resources and know-how. Most of Finland’s mineral deposits have been depleted. Now, though, the mining machine industry, the manufacturing of metals and the necessary equipment, as well as the associated electronic and technical design have all become significant sectors.
The latest stage of industrial development, the move toward manufacture of information and communications technology (ICT) and industrial automation, reduces the relative share of the traditional forest and metals industries. The dependence on traditional raw materials and other tangible inputs has been drastically reduced. The growth of the electric and electronics industries is based almost entirely on intangible inputs and global markets. In these markets, the only options open to companies from a small country are to specialize and form alliances. Finnish industry has made great strides toward reaching the upper ranks of the technology field. The nation’s industrial structure seems to have changed permanently in the direction of the new digital economy.


xxi.ii.mmiii

How Finland Is Re-presented In the EU

Short history:
1992 – Finland applies for European Community membership.
1993 – Finland, Austria, Norway and Sweden simultaneously launch membership negotiations with the European Community. The EC becomes the European Union.
1994 – In a referendum, Finns approve membership agreement with the EU.
1995 – Finland joins the EU.
1999 – Finland joins the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
1999 – Finland holds EU’s half-year rotating presidency.

In the EU parliament Finland has 16 of its representatives.


v.xii.mmiii

What There Is To Say About Philosophy In Finland – a Historical Mapping

     In the 14th century first Finnish students studied at the University of Paris. In the 16th century they started to study at the University of Wittenberg. They were rather priest than philosophers. Then, in the 1640 first two chairs of philosophy were founded at the Academy of Turku. They were both the practical (moral and historical) and theoretical (logic, metaphysics and poetics – the skills to improve debating and thinking) philosophy.
Generally, philosophical thinking in Finland can be found in the Kalevala, a national epic. For Kalevala contains very rich cosmology and moral philosophy. The struggle over the Sun and the Moon, for instance, where Sun represents truth.
To find strictly Finnish way of thinking one should try to find the very Finnish language, even pre-language since the language is the thinking. It can be found when reading Volter Kilpi. He tries to get rid of the all loan words in Finnish and create pure way of expressing the Finnish thoughts. He argues that language is born from how people perceive the world. And they perceive it in the determined by locality way. One can say that it is useless. Because if thinking is language, and language refers to universality of the real world it is obvious that language is universal. And that may mean that there cannot be such thing as local way of thinking. However, it would be sad to think that way. But sadness has nothing to do with philosophy.

ostatnich kilka dni

sobota:
wziac udzial w drugiej czesci konferencji o feministycznym (bleee…) rozumieniu Hegla, wieczorkiem odreagowac w wiadomy sposob.

niedziela:
nic nie robic (moze tylko przygotowac paczke do Polski, bo nie chce mi sie wszystkiego ze soba wozic) raczac sie pierwszymi z ostatnich lykow tutejszego specjalu o nazwie „Shwabenbrau”.

poniedzialek:
sprzedac butelki, ktore sie nazbieraly przez ostatnich kilka dni, a za otrzymana kase zakupic nowe (nie powinno byc problemu, bo szesciopak kosztuje 5.30E, a butelek mam ze 60 – jedna butelka 0.10E). pojechac na miasto i zlikwidowac konto w banku. za pieniadze sciagniete stamtad kupic sobie koszulke z napisem: „Jyväskylän Yliopisto”. w biurze KOAS umowic sie na oddanie klucza, rozwiazac umowe o akademik i umowic sie ostatecznie na sprawdzenie pokoju. pojechac do „ATK-Keskus” i napisac „learning-diary” z konferencji heglowskiej. wrocic do domu i spozytkowac zakupiony wczesniej szesciopak.

wtorek:
zebrac sie w sobie i wreszcie napisac jeden z esejow (albo „Nietzsche’s nihilism” albo „Finnish way of thinking”), bo data ich oddania minela juz wczoraj, wiec wypadaloby cos w kierunku ich ukonczenia uczynic. wieczorem zasluzenie sie zrelaksowac.

sroda:
posprzatac pokoj (chyba, ze ktos z KOAS przylezie wczesniej, wtedy trzeba bedzie przearanzowac plany). kupic potluczony talerzyk (potluczony w wyniku szalenczych jazd na krzeslach po przydomowym lodowisku, dopoki jeszcze bylo) i uzupelnic nim Survival Kit. pojechac do KOAS i oddac klucz. pojechac do Kortepohji i oddac Survival Kit (w nadziei, ze zostanie zwrocony mi depozyt w wysokosci 30E). wrocic do akademyka i spakowac sie pobieznie.

czwartek:
wstac wczesnie, ok. 4:30. dopakowac sie do konca i wykombinowac, jak dostac sie na lotnisko. na lotnisku nie dyskutowac, tylko wsiasc we wlasciwy samolot i doleciec do Helsinek (lot bedzie odbywal sie nad chmurami, o ile takie beda, powinien swiecic Ksiezyc, wiec jest szansa, ze bede miec okazje przyjrzec sie chmurom z drugiej strony, na dodatek oswietlonym przez Srebrny Glob). w Helsinkach trafic na odpowiedni terminal i zalapac sie na samolot do Warszawy. na Okeciu odnalezc bagaz i czym predzej pognac do Lodzi. w Lodzi rozpoczac jedna, wielka impreze powitalna ;-)

cytat z biografii Tolkiena

„Moze w XX wieku prawdziwie rewolucyjnym i postepowym mozna bylo byc tylko wtedy, jesli sie cofnelo wyobraznia az do sredniowiecza?”

obrazki

tekila



przestroga

On Truth And Lies In a Nonmoral Sense – Friedrich Nietzsche

„Dawno, dawno temu, gdzies w odleglym zakatku wszechswiata, niemal zupelnie zagubionym w niezliczonej ilosci migotajacych ukladow slonecznych, byla gwiazda, pod swiatlem ktorej, zdolne bestie [clever beasts] wymyslily wiedze. To byla najbardziej arogancka i zaklamana chwila w ‚historii wszechswiata’, niemniej jednak, to byla tylko chwila. Po tym, jak natura odetchnela gleboko kilkukrotnie, gwiazda stala sie chlodna i wreszcie zastygla, a zdolne bestie musialy zginac. – Ktos moglby wymyslic taka historie i wciaz nie oddalby tego jak zalosnie, jak nietrwale, jak bezcelowo i samowolnie ludzki intelekt prezentuje sie na tle natury. Przez wieki cale go nie bylo. A kiedy juz przeminie, nic sie nie stanie (…)”

wolne tlumaczenie – p.w.